A pure CBD tincture contains pure CBD oil. Sounds simple, right?
But for a CBD tincture to work properly, the hemp extract must be dispersed in a carrier oil, like MCT coconut oil. Below, you’ll find information about the carrier oil, as well as any other ingredients.
We’ve included several organic CBD brands, as well as some that are not certified organic.
As we continue testing different CBD tinctures (and checking their lab data), we continue to update this guide. Read on to discover the best pure CBD tincture for your needs.
||Price: $39.99 Use code Save10 for 10% off! at RE Botanicals||Use code Save10 for 10% off! Read our review|
||Price: $132.99 Use code OFFER15 for 15% off! at Medterra||Use code OFFER15 for 15% off! Read our review|
||Price: $53.95 Use Code CMT15 for 15% off! at Joy Organics||Use Code CMT15 for 15% off! Read our review|
||Price: $90.00 Shop now at Extract Labs||Shop now Read our review|
||Price: $39.99 Use code SAVE10 for 10% off! at Elixinol||Use code SAVE10 for 10% off! Read our review|
||Price: $109.99 Shop now at Cornbread Hemp||Shop now Read our review|
||Price: $130.00 Shop now at CBDistillery||Shop now Read our review|
||Price: $71.99 Shop now at CBD Oil Solutions||Shop now Read our review|
||Price: $71.99 Shop now at CBD Oil Solutions||Shop now Read our review|
1. Most Pure CBD Tincture Available (In Terms of Pesticide Testing): RE Botanicals 450 MG Full Spectrum TincturePrice: $39.99Pros:
- Certified free of the carcinogenic herbicide glyphosate
- RE Botanicals posts lab results for every batch of tincture, so it's easy to look up the batch your bottle came from
- This is full spectrum CBD (so it contains a small amount of THC)
- Sourced from USDA-certified organic hemp
- MCT coconut oil base
- Hemp flavor (no added flavors)
- Not the highest potency tincture on this list
- Lab reports don't indicate amounts for any additional cannabinoids (like CBN or CBG)
This RE Botanicals 450 MG Full Spectrum Tincture stands out because it’s certified “glyphosate residue free” by the Detox Project, a nongovernmental European certification body.
Glyphosate is a chemical herbicide that’s better known by the brand name Roundup. It’s the most widely used weedkiller in the world.
It also causes cancer, according to an agency of the World Health Organization.
But glyphosate is everywhere. Researchers have found it in rainwater and animal tissue across the globe. And because hemp plants are “bioacummulators,” they absorb nearly everything from the soil around them. Their roots can absorb heavy metals and chemicals — including glyphosate.
Don’t want this carcinogen in your CBD?
You’re in luck. RE Botanicals is committed to providing certified glyphosate-free CBD products.
They also source all their hemp in the U.S. and they use only USDA-certified organic hemp. They use an alcohol extraction method, which is considered one of the oldest, cleanest methods of extraction.
They also post all their lab test results online. According to the easy-to-locate lab report for this tincture, it contains the advertised amount of CBD, as well as a small amount of THC, making it “full spectrum CBD.” (For more on why full spectrum CBD may be more effective, check out our guide to full spectrum hemp extract.)
They even post the lab results by batch number, so you can easily view certificates of analysis for the exact batch number that correlates with your bottle of tincture. The lab tests for heavy metals and other contaminants as well as cannabinoids. This further establishes RE Botanicals as a leader in transparency in the CBD industry.
The company also donates 1% of its profits to support regenerative agriculture. If you buy this tincture, you can feel good about supporting an ethical company — while also feeling good thanks to your high-quality CBD. That’s a win-win.
Find more RE Botanicals 450 MG Full Spectrum Tincture information and reviews here.
2. Best THC-Free CBD Oil: Medterra CBD Oil 3000mgPrice: $132.99Pros:
- Super extra strength CBD oil (3000 milligrams! About 100 mg per dropper)
- You'll be supporting a company that donated 300K worth of CBD tinctures to frontline healthcare workers amidst the pandemic
- Made with organic MCT oil and organically-grown hemp (Medterra is pursuing organic certification now)
- Lab-verified THC-free (Made with CBD isolate)
- Medterra grows and sources all its hemp in the U.S., and all the hemp is grown without pesticides
- Medterra was one of the first 13 companies to receive the U.S. Hemp Authority seal of approval
- Great flavor and consistency with calming effects (I tried it!)
- Zero THC (This is not "full spectrum" CBD oil, so if you're hoping for the "entourage effect," check out other options on this list)
- Not tested for glyphosate (an herbicide that may linger in many fields where conventional crops were previously grown)
- Might seem expensive up-front (but when you compare cost per milligram, it's actually a good deal)
This Medterra CBD Oil stands out because of its extremely high potency — and because Medterra is an amazing company. They even donated 300K worth of CBD tinctures to frontline healthcare workers at the start of the pandemic!
Plus, it contains nothing but organic MCT coconut oil and CBD isolate. The isolate is 99.6% pure CBD. It’s derived from organically-grown hemp.
So even though this CBD oil isn’t certified organic, it’s only two ingredients are organically produced.
This 3000mg tincture is one of the highest-potency CBD oils around. If you go to the product page, you’ll see you can select other potencies at checkout, which are more affordable.
Full Disclosure: I received a sample of the 3000 mg tincture. I started testing it while I was traveling, and couldn’t believe how calm I was. Then I looked closer at the label, and realized that each dropper full contains about 100 mg. That explains why its calming effects were so palpable! Taking 100 milligrams at a time is a pretty sizable dose, even for everyday CBD consumers.
This tincture leaves a pleasant taste in your mouth. It tastes like hemp, without being overly bitter. It does not contain any artificial flavorings. (If you’re looking for a sweetened or flavored tincture, check out some of the other options on this list.)
This CBD oil is made with organic MCT coconut oil and hemp that’s grown without pesticides. Medterra sources all its hemp in the U.S., and only grows and purchases hemp grown in accordance with the guidelines put forth by the Department of Agriculture and the Kentucky Hemp Pilot Program.
Medterra was also one of the first thirteen companies awarded the U.S. Hemp Authority seal of approval. This process requires a rigorous third-party audit and annual inspections. The U.S. Hemp Authority holds hemp and CBD manufacturers to the highest standards set by any state (like the rules for nutritional supplements that are enforced in California).
Plus, every batch of Medterra product is third-party lab tested for potency, heavy metals, and residual solvents. Each package comes with a QR code that directs you to the lab result database, where you can access your batch’s test results.
You’ll see that the lab confirms that Medterra products contain zero THC. These are made with CBD isolate. (Which explains why they’re available at CVS locations.)
This 3000mg tincture might seem expensive, but when you break it down by dose, you realize you could be taking 100 milligrams of high-quality CBD per day, for about four bucks a day. That’s a great deal. Plus, you’ll be supporting a company that supports frontline healthcare workers.
Find more Medterra CBD Oil 3000mg information and reviews here.
3. Best Broad Spectrum CBD Oil: Joy Organics CBD Oil Tincture (450mg)Price: $53.95Pros:
- Joy Organics makes batch-specific lab results easily accessible on their website
- THC-free broad spectrum hemp extratct
- They use organic hemp, and are pursuing organic certification, according to a company representative
- All their other ingredients (like the olive oil in this tincture) are already USDA-certified organic
- Terpenes added, both for flavor and to encourage full entourage effect
- This version in the photo is only 450mg (but you can select other potencies as you check out)
- Broad spectrum hemp extract (does not contain any THC)
- Not tested for glyphosate (similar to almost all other CBD oil tinctures)
The Joy Organics CBD Oil Tincture stands out because it’s a delicious broad spectrum CBD oil. Which is to say, all the THC has been removed.
And it’s almost fully certified organic. Over 90% of Joy Organics’ ingredients are USDA-certified organic, according to a representative who spoke with us. And all their hemp is already grown organically in the US.
The representative informed us that Joy Organics will soon receive its USDA organic certification for all of its products. (Although, that was several months ago; as of August 2020, the brand has not yet obtained its USDA seal.)
This Tranquil Mint flavor is absolutely delicious. (I tried it.) It covers up any hemp flavor, without being overpowering.
A CBD tincture that tastes good isn’t just an extra indulgence. Because when you enjoy the flavor of your CBD tincture, you’re more likely to leave it under your tongue for a minute, and swish it around your mouth. This step — instead of simply swallowing your tincture immediately — helps improve the speed of absorption.
And when you have a delicious tincture, it’s easier to swish it around your mouth, allowing it to be absorbed by your sublingual capillaries.
And with this Joy Organics CBD oil, you can choose from several flavors. The mint and natural version are blended with organic olive oil, while the lemon and orange flavors are blended with MCT coconut oil.
I tried the mint flavor. (Full disclosure: I received a free sample of the 1350 mg bottle, which you can also buy through this link when you select your flavor and potency options at checkout.)
My bottle had a batch number printed on the bottom of it: “CTM1350.” This led me to batch-specific lab reports for my exact batch of tincture. (Test results for every batch are available on Joy Organics’ website.)
According to the results, Green Scientific Labs found that my batch of tincture actually contained over 1400 mg CBD per bottle, along with .4 mg CBC and 47.9 mg CBG. (For more information about these lesser-known cannabinoids, check out our guide to CBG oil.) The lab also tested for heavy metals, pesticides, and microbial contaminants.
The lab did not, however, find any THC. That makes this broad spectrum hemp extract, but not full spectrum hemp extract, because it’s THC free.
I normally opt for full-spectrum CBD oil, but I took this broad spectrum tincture consistently for a week straight. I hate to be cheesy, but I have to say, during my time testing Joy Organics, I felt an increased amount of joy.
I wondered how a broad-spectrum tincture could have such a noticeable effect on me. (Most experts recommend full spectrum CBD oil, because they theorize that CBD works best as part of an “entourage effect,” or a synergy, with the full “spectrum” of other cannabinoids — including a small amount of THC.)
Maybe it’s because I consider THC an important element in my arsenal of wellness products, so there’s probably already plenty of THC in my body to activate the “entourage effect.” Or maybe it’s because Joy Organics adds additional terpenes to their flavored tinctures: their website says that these added terpenes “encourage the full entourage effect.”
Find more Joy Organics CBD Oil Tincture (450mg) information and reviews here.
4. Best THC-Free Pure CBD Isolate Tincture: Extract Labs Pure CBD Isolate Tincture (2000mg)Price: $90.00Pros:
- Contains nothing but CBD isolate and coconut oil (CBD isolate contains zero THC)
- CBD dervied from non-GMO hemp grown organically in Colorado
- Veteran-owned company
- With zero THC, some people may not get the full benefits of CBD
- (Some experts believe in the "entourage effect," which suggests you may want to look for CBD oil with small amounts of other cannabinoids, including THC)
- Extract Labs' "third party testing" is conducted by a lab which was started by the company itself, so slightly less "third party" than some other CBD companies
This Extract Labs Pure CBD Isolate Tincture contains 2000mg of pure CBD isolate.
That means it doesn’t contain any other cannabinoids. No THC, no CBG — nothing but CBD, pure and simple.
That makes it perfect for anyone who’s worried about the mind-altering effects of THC.
The CBD isolate is CO2-extracted, making it an even purer extract. (There won’t be any traces of residual solvents in these products, because no chemical solvents were used.)
Extract labs non-GMO hemp is grown in Colorado in accordance with organic standards. Their products don’t contain any fillers or additives.
And the lab results for each batch are easy to view right there on the product page.
Find more Extract Labs Pure CBD Isolate Tincture (2000mg) information and reviews here.
5. Best Affordable Full Spectrum CBD Oil: Elixinol Full Spectrum CBD Oil 500mgPrice: $39.99Pros:
- Each bottle contains a batch number, which leads you to batch-specific third-party lab results online
- Third-party lab testing includes cannabinoid potency, heavy metals, microbial contaminants, and more
- Lab confirms presence of small amounts of THC, making this full spectrum CBD oil
- Elixinol has received seal of approval from U.S. Hemp Authority (which holds CBD companies to rigorous standards)
- Supercritical CO2 extraction
- Blended with MCT coconut oil
- Affordable, despite many extra quality assurance steps (which are not legally required)
- No added flavor, so it tastes slightly of hemp (which isn't everyone's favorite flavor)
- Lab report does not show detectable levels of CBN or CBG (additional cannabinoids sometimes reported in full spectrum hemp oil)
- The only certification Elixinol does not have is "glyphosate free" (see other tinctures on this list for more information)
This Elixinol “Daily Balance” CBD Tincture stands out because of the company’s transparency, and its affordable pure CBD oil price point.
Aside from full spectrum CBD oil, the only other ingredients are coconut oil and a terpene called Beta-Caryophyllene (BCP). This terpene, which is derived from hemp, would be found in many whole-plant extractions anyway. Elixinol adds an extra amount, because some research suggests it may help with absorption and uptake.
Elixinol’s third party testing is conducted by Botanacor, a resected Colorado lab. The lab tests for potency along with microbial contaminants and residual solvents.
I received a free sample of this tincture to test out. I located my batch number on the side of the jar, went to Elixinol’s website, and typed it in. I was met with user-friendly, batch-specific test results.
For each contaminant and solvent tested, the lab found zero traces of anything. When they tested for ethanol residue, they found zero parts per million. This is significant because Elixinol uses ethanol to distill this hemp oil tincture. (This means all the ethanol must have been burned off during the process — the sign of a clean distillation process.) Elixinol also uses supercritical CO2 extraction, further contributing to their ultra-clean product.
Reviewing these test results, I discovered that Elixinol also employed yet another lab (Eurofins Food Integrity and Innovation) to test the batch for heavy metals and chemical residues. This matters, because some analysts believe CBD products may contain harmful chemicals — even if the CBD is derived from organically-grown hemp. (Hemp plants can absorb chemicals from the soil, and some hemp fields may have been sprayed with toxic chemicals in the past, when growing more conventional crops.) This lab tested for dozens of chemical residues and did not detect any harmful chemicals in Elixinol’s tincture.
Elixinol has also been awarded the U.S. Hemp Authority’s Seal of Approval. The U.S. Hemp Authority is a non-governmental organization that conducts independent, third-party audits of each company that applies for its seal. They hold these companies to the strictest standards applied to nutritional supplements anywhere in the country, largely by using California’s strict standards. (For more about their seal of approval, check out our explainer about CBD on Amazon.) The organization audits each company on its list annually.
Despite all these extra quality control steps — none of which are legally required — this CBD oil is extremely affordable. It’s blended in MCT coconut oil for rapid absorption and added nutrients. The lab results by Botanacor confirm that this bottle contains 300 mg CBD, as well as around 21 mg of THC. This small amount of THC affirms that this is truly full spectrum hemp extract. Those 21 mg aren’t enough to get you high — but they may activate the “entourage effect.” (Researchers theorize that your body can best use CBD when it’s accompanied by trace amounts of THC.)
Find more Elixinol 300 MG Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture information and reviews here.
6. First to be USDA Certified Organic: Cornbread Hemp USDA Certified Organic CBD Oil (1500 mg)Price: $109.99Pros:
- USDA-certified organic CBD oil
- Cornbread Hemp was one of the first CBD companies EVER to earn USDA seal
- Cornbread Hemp publishes third-party lab results by USDA-approved hemp lab, including potency, heavy metals, residual solvents and more
- Blended with organic MCT coconut oil
- Company uses different language than most CBD brands (ie. "whole plant" instead of "full spectrum")
- Not tested for glyphosate (similar to almost all CBD oil tinctures, except one brand that we know of)
- Glyphosate may have been used on most fields in Kentucky, where farmers previously grew conventional crops
- (The hemp for these products is grown in Kentucky)
This Cornbread Hemp Organic CBD Oil stands out because it’s USDA-certified organic, and it was one of the first CBD companies in the US to earn the USDA seal.
Cornbread Hemp grows all their hemp in Kentucky, and all Cornbread Hemp products are tested by Kaycha Labs, Kentucky’s only DEA-registered testing facility. (Kaycha Labs is also a USDA-Approved Hemp Laboratory, and an ISO accredited testing facility.)
Kaycha tests these batches of CBD oil for not only potency, but also heavy metals, residual solvents, microbials, mycotoxins, and pesticides. (All the products they sell have passed with flying colors on all fronts.)
So this CBD oil is not only certified organic, but also rigorously lab-tested.
Full Disclosure: I received a free sample of their lower-dose 375 mg version.
It came with an “authenticity tag” by Cannverify. You scratch off the tinfoil coating where instructed, and then scan the QR code on the sticker. Once you’ve been taken to Cannverify’s site, you type in the 4-digit code you just revealed by scratching off the top layer. Cannverify verifies your product, so you know it’s not a counterfeit. The page also gives you helpful dosage and product information.
Then, if you scan the other QR code on the box, it takes you to Cornbread Hemp’s lab certificate database. You can use the batch number printed on the bottom of the box to look up the third-party lab reports specific to your batch.
The lab report for this strength, which is also easily accessible on the product page, shows that this product contains truly full spectrum hemp extract. It includes .234 percent THC, and 5.2% CBD, along with lesser amounts of the “minor” cannabinoids, like CBG and CBC.
The lab tested for dozens of pesticides, but it does not test for one called glyphosate. But that’s actually pretty standard across the industry — almost no CBD companies test for glyphosate, the weed-killer that goes by the commercial name of Roundup, which has been sprayed on most agricultural fields in America.
If you want CBD oil made with US-grown hemp, you can’t do much better than Cornbread Hemp.
Find more Cornbread Hemp Organic CBD Oil nformation and reviews here.
7. Best CBD Oil 2500mg: CBDistillery Full Spectrum Tincture (2500mg)Price: $130.00Pros:
- Lab results can be viewed on product page
- CBDistillery has earned certification from U.S. Hemp Authority, which involves annual third party audit
- This extra-strength version has 2500mg CBD
- Expensive (but when you look at cost per milligram, it's actually pretty affordable)
- Terpenes are added
- Some users note cannabis flavor in CBDistillery tinctures
The CBDistillery Full Spectrum Tincture With 2500 mg CBD stands out because of its high potency. If your wellness regimen involves larger doses of full spectrum CBD, buying a 2500 mg tincture might cost more up-front — but it should save you money in the long run.
For CBDistillery’s third-party lab results, you can check their database for your exact batch number.
Here are the lab results for one batch of this full spectrum CBD oil. The accredited testing lab Botanacor found about 2600 mg CBD per 30 mL bottle. (That’s even more than advertised!) The lab also found trace levels of THC and CBG, indicating that this is truly full spectrum CBD oil.
You can check out their lab database, and search for an exact batch number or product. For each batch, you can view not only cannabinoid potency results, but also view results for Pesticides, Residual Solvents, Heavy Metals, Microbials, Terpenes, and Mycotoxins.
The price may seem expensive. But when you break down the cost per milligram, it’s actually pretty affordable. (If you’re looking at price per milligram, this high-strength tincture is actually around half the cost of other CBD oil options on this list.)
Plus, CBDistillery is certified by the US Hemp Authority, a non-governmental industry entity whose third-party certification program is designed to hold CBD companies to the highest possible standards. The organization, which foresees strict FDA regulations in the near future, believes CBD producers and brands need to be prepared, as the organization’s president, Marielle Weintraub, told me.
So they hold companies like CBDistillery to the strictest standards set forth for nutritional supplements. (Basically, the US Hemp Authority encourages all CBD companies to meet the nutritional supplement standards set forth by California, because they’re the strictest in the country.)
To earn their seal of approval, CBDistillery has conducted this additional testing, which is not yet required by law.
Find more CBDistillery Full Spectrum Tincture (2,500 MG CBD) information and reviews here.
8. Best Tincture for Getting Work Done: EcoSciences “Eco Drops” Focus TincturePros:
- Lab test results available for every batch in user-friendly database (Look yours up with your QR code or batch number)
- Custom terpene blend for enhanced focus
- EcoSciences uses CO2 supercritical extraction method to extract plant compounds without using chemical solvents
- Extracted from organically-grown hemp
- More expensive than some other tinctures on this list
- Not available on Amazon
- Probably not ideal at bedtime (citrus terpenes can promote alertness)
The EcoDrops Focus Tincture stands out because of the company’s commitment to transparency, as well as the proprietary blend of terpenes added to this product to help you keep your busy mind focused.
Terpenes are the molecules that impart the distinctive odors found in cannabis, pine trees, and citrus, among other nose-worthy plants.
Recent research suggests terpenes may impact the effects of certain strains.
The ECODrops Focus Terpene blend contains D-Limonene, Valecene, Alpha-Pinene, Beta-Pinene, Citral, Camphene, and more. Orange, lemon, and ginger terpenes were also added to further enhance your mental sharpness and alertness.
This product is truly full-spectrum hemp oil. The company provided test results for every batch of their EcoDrops. They often contain even more than 500MG.
EcoSciences uses CO2 supercritical extraction method to extract the CBD, terpenes, cannabinoids, vitamins, lipids, nutrients, and other compounds from hemp. They also source only organic hemp.
The CO2 extraction method means you get the beneficial plant compounds, without any residual solvents left over. CO2 extraction is often considered the cleanest extraction method.
This also comes in a 30mL option (with 1500mg CBD!).
Find more EcoSciences "Eco Drops" Focus Tincture (500MG CBD) information and reviews here.
9. Best Full-Spectrum CBD Drops for a Quick Mood Boost: Eco Sciences ECODrops “Boost” Tincture (500 MG)Pros:
- Third party lab results confirm that this is truly full-spectrum hemp extract (includes low levels of THC)
- Custom crafted terpene blend includes specific hemp terpenes as well as lavender, chamomile, and clary sage terpenes
- This company uses CO2 extraction, so you don't have to worry about residual solvents
- Extracted from organically-grown hemp
- Not everyone wants THC in their CBD tincture (even at trace levels like this)
- Not from US-grown hemp
The Eco Sciences ECODrops “Boost” Tincture stands out because it includes full-spectrum CBD, as well as a terpene blend specifically formulated to improve your mood.
Eco Sciences uses a CO2 supercritical extraction method to extract the CBD, terpenes, cannabinoids, vitamins, lipids, nutrients, and compounds from organically-grown EU hemp. That means this is truly full-spectrum hemp extract. And thanks to these high production standards, you don’t have to worry about residual solvents or pesticides.
Eco Sciences is also committed to transparency. You can look up test results that correspond specifically to the batch number on your bottle.
For one batch of this Boost Tincture, the 10 ml bottle contained 548 MG of CBD and 3 MG THC. It contained 3 MG of CBC and .7 of CBG, two lesser-known cannabinoids that experts believe can play a role in increasing the efficacy of CBD.
Find more Eco Sciences ECODrops "Boost" Tincture (500 MG CBD) information and reviews here.
Is CBD tincture the same as CBD oil?
Not necessarily. "CBD oil" is a vague umbrella term. Sometimes, it describes CBD tinctures; other times, it's a catch-all term for CBD in general. (For example, it could be used to describe the main active ingredient in CBD chocolate.)
How did you choose the best pure CBD tinctures?
First, we ruled out CBD oil with any additional flavors, additives, or fillers. (That's why you'll only find unflavored CBD tinctures on this list.)
Then we included several different kinds of CBD tinctures: full spectrum CBD oil, broad spectrum CBD oil, and CBD isolate tinctures.
We included some organic CBD oil brands, but we mostly checked their ingredients lists and lab tests for purity. (Many CBD brands find it challenging to obtain USDA certification, so they can't call themselves organic, despite using organic ingredients and growing methods).
The pure CBD oil tinctures reviewed above mostly contain nothing but MCT coconut oil and hemp extract. We made an exception for a couple CBD tinctures that contain terpenes, because terpenes already occur naturally in hemp plants (and can be found in full spectrum hemp extract).
CBD Tincture vs CBD Oil
CBD tinctures are a more specific product category. (They're also sometimes referred to as "CBD drops.")
Herbal tinctures of all kinds are designed to be taken "sub-lingually." You use the dropper to put a few drops under your tongue. Then you wait a few seconds. And maybe swish it around before you swallow.
The cannabinoids can be absorbed by the blood vessels in your mouth. This is why tinctures can take effect much more quickly than edibles, which must be digested and then processed by your liver.
That's why tinctures are one of the fastest ways to get the healing benefits of CBD.
Full Spectrum CBD Tincture:
"Full Spectrum CBD" refers to a CBD product that also contains all the other cannabinoids and terpenes that occur alongside CBD in hemp plants. Hemp naturally contains small amounts of THC. It's not enough THC to get you high, but it may help your body absorb and use CBD more effectively, in what researchers call the "Entourage Effect."
For more information, check out our guide to buying legitimate, lab-tested full spectrum hemp oil.
What's the best CBD tincture 1000mg?
In the list above, you'll see we've reviewed a few tinctures with 1000 mg CBD. (And we really mean it: we made sure, by checking the lab results for each one, and doing the math. Okay, using a calculator.)
We've even included one CBDistillery tincture with over 1000 mg.
Check out the reviews above for more information!