George Floyd’s autopsy indicates that he had previously tested positive for COVID-19 and was an asymptomatic carrier of coronavirus. However, the Hennepin County Medical Examiner did not list COVID-19 as Floyd’s cause of death.
However, despite the COVID-19 diagnosis, Floyd’s lungs did not show signs of pneumonia. “Sections of right and left lung show generally normal overall architecture, without malignancy, pneumonia, granulomatous inflammation, or polarizable intravascular foreign material. Many small vessels contain rounded clear vacuoles, consistent with bone marrow embolism from cardiopulmonary resuscitation,” the autopsy report states in a section on Floyd’s lungs.
The new findings came on June 3 when the ME released Floyd’s full autopsy report.
The Hennepin County Medical Examiner now says that George Floyd died of a heart attack and was on fentanyl at the time of his death and that his death is a homicide, citing restraint and neck compression by officers. In a late evening press release on June 1, the Hennepin County Medical Examiner’s office stated that Floyd’s cause of death was “Cardiopulmonary arrest complicating law enforcement subdual, restraint, and neck compression.”
The ME gave the manner of death as “Homicide,” saying, “Decedent experienced a cardiopulmonary arrest while being restrained by law enforcement officer(s).” They listed other significant conditions as “Arteriosclerotic and hypertensive heart disease; fentanyl intoxication; recent methamphetamine use.”
The office added, “Manner of death classification is a statutory function of the medical examiner, as part of death certification for purposes of vital statistics and public health. Manner of death is not a legal determination of culpability or intent, and should not be used to usurp the judicial process. Such decisions are outside the scope of the Medical Examiner’s role or authority. Under Minnesota state law, the Medical Examiner is a neutral and independent office and is separate and distinct from any prosecutorial authority or law enforcement agency.”
Here’s what you need to know:
The Autopsy Report Says Floyd Tested Positive for COVID-19 in Early April
The ME released the autopsy report for Floyd on June 3. It indicated he was an asymptomatic carrier of COVID-19. “The decedent was known to be positive for 2019-nCoV RNA on 4/3/2020,” the report says. “Since PCR positivity for 2019-nCoV RNA can persist for weeks after the onset and resolution of clinical disease, the autopsy result most likely reflects asymptomatic but persistent PCR positivity from previous infection.” You can read the full autopsy report here.
The report describes Floyd as a “46-year-old man who became unresponsive while being restrained by law enforcement officers; he received emergency medical care in the field and subsequently in the Hennepin HealthCare (HHC) Emergency Department, but could not be resuscitated.”
The report says that Floyd had the following “blunt force injuries”:
Cutaneous blunt force injuries of the forehead, face, and upper lip
Mucosal injuries of the lips
Cutaneous blunt force injuries of the shoulders, hands, elbows, and legs
Patterned contusions (in some areas abraded) of the wrists, consistent with restraints (handcuffs)
The autopsy report lists the following “natural diseases” for Floyd:
Arteriosclerotic heart disease, multifocal, severe
Hypertensive heart disease
Cardiomegaly (540 g) with mild biventricular dilatation
Clinical history of hypertension
Left pelvic tumor (incidental, see microscopic description)
Under a section called “no life-threatening injuries” identified, the report says:
No facial, oral mucosal, or conjunctival petechiae
No injuries of anterior muscles of neck or laryngeal structures
No scalp soft tissue, skull, or brain injuries
No chest wall soft tissue injuries, rib fractures (other than a single rib fracture from CPR), vertebral column injuries, or visceral injuries Incision and subcutaneous dissection of posterior and lateral neck, shoulders, back, flanks, and buttocks negative for occult trauma
The toxicology report found the following:
Blood drug and novel psychoactive substances screens:
Fentanyl 11 ng/mL
Norfentanyl 5.6 ng/mL
4-ANPP 0.65 ng/mL
Methamphetamine 19 ng/mL
11-Hydroxy Delta-9 THC 1.2 ng/mL
Delta-9 Carboxy THC 42 ng/mL
Delta-9 THC 2.9 ng/mL
Blood volatiles: negative for ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, or acetone
Urine drug screen: presumptive positive for cannabinoids, amphetamines, and fentanyl/metabolite
Urine drug screen confirmation: morphine (free) 86 ng/mL
The autopsy also noted, “The finding of sickled-appearing cells in many of the autopsy tissue sections prompted the Hemoglobin S quantitation reported above. This quantitative result is indicative of sickle cell trait.”
Floyd’s last minutes were captured in a very disturbing viral video that shows now-fired Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin with his knee to Floyd’s neck. Police use-of-force experts have decried the restraint technique used by the officer.
Despite third-degree murder and manslaughter charges being filed against Chauvin, the official cause of death was not released by the Hennepin County Medical Examiner’s office until the June 1 release. They say they were awaiting laboratory results. The criminal complaint, which came out earlier against Chauvin, described preliminary findings but said the full report was then not yet completed.
The complaint filed by Hennepin County Attorney Mike Freeman said the Medical Examiner’s Office uncovered “no physical findings that support a diagnosis of traumatic asphyxia or strangulation” and referred to Floyd having “potential” intoxicants in his system as a contributor to his death. The Minnesota Attorney General has now added a second-degree murder charge to the charges Chauvin is facing.
There is now a countering opinion.
Floyd’s family, through an attorney, announced they were hiring famed pathologist Michael Baden to conduct an independent autopsy. The independent autopsy conducted by Baden has found that “George Floyd’s death was due to asphyxia from sustained forceful pressure,” according to a June 1 news conference and news release by the Floyd family’s attorney. The press conference occurred before the Hennepin County ME’s news release.
Despite the ME’s Findings, the Family’s Pathologists Found That Floyd Asphyxiated & Didn’t Find Evidence of Heart Issues
A few hours before the ME revealed its cause of death, the family’s pathologists found differently. A press release from Floyd’s family lawyer, Ben Crump, explained:
World renowned medical examiner Dr. Michael Baden and Dr. Allecia Wilson found the manner of Mr. Floyd’s death was homicide caused by asphyxia due to neck and back compression that led to a lack of blood flow to the brain. Sustained pressure on the right side of Mr. Floyd’s carotid artery impeded blood flow to the brain, and weight on his back impeded his ability to breathe. The independent examiners found that weight on the back, handcuffs and positioning were contributory factors because they impaired the ability of Mr. Floyd’s diaphragm to function. From all the evidence, the doctors said it now appears Mr. Floyd died at the scene.
“The knee to the neck and the knees to his back both contributed to him not being able to get breath,” said Crump in the news conference.
And what those officers did, that we see on the video, is the cause of his death, not some underlying, unknown health condition. George Floyd was a healthy young man. We see in the video he was walking, breathing; he was alive. His cause of death medically was mechanical asphyxiation. The legal determination is homicide. That is it in a nutshell. The officers killed him based on a knee to his neck for almost nine minutes and two knees to his back compressing his lungs. The ambulance was his hearse.
“What we found is consistent with what people saw. There is no other health issue that could cause or contribute to the death,” Baden said. “Police have this false impression that if you can talk, you can breathe. That’s not true.”
“For George Floyd, the ambulance was his hearse. Beyond question, he would be alive today if not for the pressure applied to his neck by fired officer Derek Chauvin and the strain on his body from two additional officers kneeling on him,” said Crump in the news conference. “George was living, breathing, talking until we see these officers restrain him while he’s facedown in handcuffs with Officer Chauvin having his knee lodged into his neck for more than 8 minutes … and the other officer having both of his knees lodged into his back.” He called the violence in the streets unacceptable.
“We are not surprised yet we are tragically disappointed in the preliminary autopsy findings released today by the medical examiner. We hope that this does not reflect efforts to create a false narrative for the reason George Floyd died,” said Crump, earlier. “Attempts to avoid the hard truth will not stand, and on behalf of the family, we are fiercely committed to bringing the truth to light.”
Before the June 1 findings, the latest release by the Hennepin County Medical Examiner’s office came on May 28. It stated:
The Hennepin County Medical Examiner’s office is actively investigating the death of George Floyd and awaiting final results from laboratory studies to provide the most medically accurate cause of death determination possible. The Medical Examiner recognizes the public expectation for timely, accurate, and transparent information release, within the confines of Minnesota law. However, the autopsy alone cannot answer all questions germane to the cause and manner of death, and must be interpreted in the context of the pertinent investigative information and informed by the results of laboratory studies. Under Minnesota state law, the Medical Examiner is a neutral and independent office and is separate and distinct from any prosecutorial authority or law enforcement.
An earlier release by the medical examiner on May 26 stated, “The cause and manner of death is currently pending further testing and investigation by the Hennepin County Medical Examiner’s Office, Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension and the FBI.”
The Criminal Complaint Says Floyd’s Autopsy Showed ‘No Physical Findings That Support a Diagnosis of Traumatic Asphyxia or Strangulation,’ But Floyd’s Family Is Questioning That Finding
A reporter asked Baden and Wilson whether the cause of death determination was made by the video or other forensic evidence.
Wilson said the findings were based “on the circumstances surrounding the death, which does include the video but also additional findings determined at our autopsy. Physical evidence supports that there was pressure applied to his neck.” She also said they examined “other organs available to us.” She wasn’t specific about those additional findings, but Baden then provided more details.
“We take everything we have in consideration,” said Baden. “In this instance, the video tells you what the scene is. Those multiple videos show pressure that can cause death and his calling out like Eric Garner including calling out for his mother who had been dead for three years. None of this caused the release of the pressure, and that is very disturbing.”
There were rough abrasions around the left eye and left cheek, and a little bit on the nose and mouth, that are due, as we can see in the video, to his left side of his face being rubbed against the pavement while the left knee of the officer is squeezing down on the left side of the neck…the neck is a small area with many vital organs, arteries, veins, nerves, and the windpipe, all of which are compressed with the knee activity. The abrasions.. would also indicate that a component of the interference of breathing was also some pressures that were placed on the nose and mouth. These are also very painful kinds of scrapes. Also severe scrape marks on the back of his left shoulder that was part of the activity that was causing him to rub against the officer’s knee as well as the face being on the ground.
Asked whether Floyd had heart disease, Wilson said that, in the specimens they examined, they didn’t find significant disease of the heart, but she said that other specimens were retained by authorities and weren’t available.
Baden said, “I wish I had the same coronary arteries that Mr. Floyd had that we saw at the autopsy.”
Wilson said they had not had a chance to review the actual preliminary report of the Hennepin County Medical Examiner, although it was summarized in the criminal complaint against Chauvin. “We do disagree,” said Wilson of the Floyd family team and the Hennepin County Medical Examiner. “There is evidence in this case of traumatic or mechanical asphyxia.”
The criminal complaint against Chauvin says Floyd’s autopsy revealed “no physical findings that support a diagnosis of traumatic asphyxia or strangulation. Mr. Floyd had underlying health conditions including coronary artery disease and hypertensive heart disease. The combined effects of Mr. Floyd being restrained by the police, his underlying health conditions and any potential intoxicants in his system likely contributed to his death.”
Chauvin “had his knee on Mr. Floyd’s neck for 8 minutes and 46 seconds in total. Two minutes and 53 seconds of this was after Mr. Floyd was non-responsive. Police are trained that this type of restraint with a prone position is inherently dangerous,” the complaint says. It also says Chauvin disregarded another officer, Thomas Lane, who asked, “Should we roll him on his side?” Chauvin responded, “No, staying put where we got him,” the complaint says.
The complaint also states that the Hennepin County Medical Examiner “conducted Mr. Floyd’s autopsy on May 26, 2020. The full report of the ME is pending.” The above findings were characterized as the ME’s “preliminary findings.”
What is traumatic asphyxiation? According to the journal article Traumatic asphyxia due to blunt chest trauma: a case report and literature review:
Asphyxia is defined as any condition that leads to tissue oxygen deprivation. Traumatic asphyxia is a type of mechanical asphyxia, where respiration is prevented by external pressure on the body, at the same time inhibiting respiratory movements and compromising venous return from the head. Conditions like compression of the chest and/or abdomen under a heavy weight and wedging of the body within a narrow space or large crowds have been reported. A Valsalva maneuver is necessary before thoracic compression for development of the syndrome. Usual autopsy findings include intense purple facial congestion and swelling with hemorrhagic petechiae of the face, the neck and upper chest, craniocervical cyanosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage.
You can read the full complaint here. This is the citizen video showing officers restraining Floyd. Be forewarned that it’s very disturbing.
As far back as 1995, the National Law Enforcement Technology Center noted in a paper, “A person lying on his stomach has trouble breathing when pressure is applied to his back. The remedy seems relatively simple: get the pressure off his back.” Known factors increasing risk of positional asphyxia include obesity, drugs or alcohol, an enlarged heart and a violent struggle.
“Studies have suggested that restraining a person in a face-down position is likely to cause greater restriction of breathing than restraining a person face-up,” Police Magazine reported. “Multiple cases of death by positional asphyxia have been associated with the hog tied or prone restraint position.”
The criminal complaint says that a person called 911 on May 25, 2020, and reported that a man “bought merchandise from Cup Foods … with a counterfeit $20 bill.”
Officers Lane and J.A. Kueng arrived at 8:08 p.m. They learned from store personnel that the man “who passed the counterfeit $20 was parked in a car around the corner from the store on 38th Street.”
The officers’ body-worn cameras show that the officers approached the car with Lane on the driver’s side and Kueng on the passenger side. Three people were in the car. Floyd was in the driver’s scene and an adult male and female were also in the vehicle, the complaint says.
The complaint further alleges that as Lane began speaking with Floyd, “he pulled his gun out and pointed it at Mr. Floyd’s open window and directed Mr. Floyd to show his hands.” Floyd put his hands on the steering wheel, so Lane put his gun back in its holster. (The bodycam videos have not yet been released publicly.)
When Kueng was speaking with the front seat passenger, Lane ordered Floyd out of the car, put his hands on Floyd and pulled him out of the car, handcuffing him. “Mr. Floyd actively resisted being handcuffed,” the complaint alleges.
Once handcuffed, Floyd “became compliant” and walked with Lane to the sidewalk, sitting on the ground at Lane’s direction. There was a conversation for under two minutes. Lane asked Floyd for his name and identification and whether he was on anything and explained he was arresting Floyd for passing counterfeit currency, the complaint stated.
Kueng and Lane stood Floyd up and attempted to walk him to their squad car at 8:14 p.m. Floyd “stiffened up, fell to the ground, and told the officers he was claustrophobic.”
That’s when Chauvin and Officer Tou Thao arrived in a separate squad car.
“The officers made several attempts to get Mr. Floyd in the backseat of squad 320 from the driver’s side. Mr. Floyd did not voluntarily get in the car and struggled with the officers by intentionally falling down, saying he was not going in the car, and refusing to stand still,” the complaint alleges. “Mr. Floyd is over six feet tall and weighs more than 200 pounds.”
While standing outside the car, Floyd began “saying and repeatedly that he could not breathe.” Chauvin went to the passenger side and “tried to get Mr. Floyd into the car from that side and Lane and Kueng assisted,” according to the complaint.
Chauvin “pulled Mr. Floyd out of the passenger side of the squad car at 8:19:38 p.m. and Mr. Floyd went to the ground face down and still handcuffed,” said the complaint.
It alleged that Kueng held Floyd’s back and Lane held his legs. Chauvin placed his left knee in the area of Floyd’s head and neck. Floyd said, “I can’t breathe” multiple times and repeatedly said, “Mama.”
“The defendant and the other two officers stayed in their positions,” according to the complaint.
The officers said, “You are talking fine,” to Floyd. Lane asked, “should we roll him on his side?” Chauvin allegedly responded, “No, staying put where we got him.”
Lane said, “I am worried about excited delirium or whatever.” Chauvin said, “That’s why we have him on his stomach,” according to the complaint, which added that “none of the three officers moved from their positions.”
The bodycam video shows that Floyd continued to move and breathe but stopped moving at 8:24:24 p.m.
At 8:25:31 p.m., the video appears to show Floyd ceasing to breathe or speak. Lane said, “I want to roll him on his side.” Kueng checked Floyd’s right wrist for a pulse and said, “I couldn’t find one.” None of the officers moved from their positions.
At 8:27:24 p.m., Chauvin removed his knee from Floyd’s neck. An ambulance arrived and Floyd was placed on a gurney. Floyd was pronounced dead at Hennepin County Medical Center.
Heavy previously reached out to Tom Kelly, the lawyer for Chauvin, and his office said Kelly is not commenting right now on the case and that reporters should direct their questions to the Minneapolis Police Department. Lt. Bob Kroll of the Police Officers Federation of Minneapolis told CBS Minneapolis: “Now is not the time rush to judgment and immediately condemn our officers. An in-depth investigation is underway. Our officers are fully cooperating. We must review all video. We must wait for the medical examiner’s report.”